**Process Physics**

Below are listed some informative quotes first from wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.org) and then from ("Process Physics" by R.T. Cahill, Process Studies Supplement 2003 Issue 5, http://www.ctr4process.org/publications/ProcessStudies/PSS/) and some brief comments. For more information on process physics see http://www.scieng.flinders.edu.au/cpes/people/cahill r/processphysics.html.

Process physics is closely related to this work in that the current definition of SMN is similar to Cahill's iterative seed process. From this I propose that an information system theoretic semantic existential space arises, which may turn out to be just what process physics is describing. Process physics can be described by the idea that:

“*reality can be modeled as self-organising semantic information, that is, information that is internally meaningful, using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This system has no prior objects or laws, and evolves using an iterative system. The Process physics model claims to demonstrate that space and quantum physics can be seen as emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a space. Process physics also claims to explain inertia, time dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, the arrow of time and the 'now' effect and the emergence of classicality.*”

Furthermore:

“*Process physics claims to be a model of reality that is designed to replace general relativity and unify it with quantum theory. The limitations of formal information systems discovered by Gödel, Turing and Chaitin, are used to replace the geometric modeling of time constructed by Galileo, Newton and Einstein, and to account for the measurement process in quantum theory.*”

The ideas of process philosophy have been prevalent throughout the East for many thousands of years, especially in the form of Taoism, however in the Western tradition some claim:

“*Heraclitus of Ephesus, the Greek philosopher, as the first process physicist, who argued that common sense is mistaken in thinking that the world consists of stable 'things', rather the world is in a state of flux and the appearance of 'things' depend upon this flux for their continuity and identity.*”

**Process Physics**

The underlying idea:

“*The fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic or relational information using a self-referentially limited neural network model, where the information-theoretic limitations are implemented via self-referential noise. This modelling was motivated by the discovery that such stochastic neural networks are foundational to known quantum field theories. In Process Physics time is a distinct nongeometric process while space and quantum physics are emergent and unified.*”

“*Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features are the emergence of quantum field theory with flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality. The unification of the quantum foam structure of space with the quantum nature of matter amounts to the discovery of quantum gravity. Gravity is essentially an in-flow effect associated with the loss of information. A new theory of gravity for the classical limit is proposed, and shown to pass the key tests. A detailed analysis of various experiments demonstrates that absolute motion with respect to this space of quantum foam has been observed in the interferometer experiments of Michelson and Morley, Miller, Illingworth, Joos, Jaseja et al and in the coaxial cable experiments by Torr and Kolen, and by DeWitte. The Miller data also reveal the in-flow of space into matter which manifests as gravity. The in-flow also manifests turbulence and the experimental data of Miller, DeWitte, and Torr and Kolen confirms this, which amounts to the observation of a gravitational wave phenomena. Contrary to the usual assumptions absolute motion is consistent with relativistic effects, which are caused by actual dynamical effects of absolute motion through the quantum foam, so that it is Lorentzian relativity that is seen to be essentially correct.*

*The success of this new physics has profound implications for our comprehension of reality, and supersedes the current non-Process Physics modelling of reality.*”

“*Process Physics is an information-theoretic modelling of reality. It is a new physics.*”

“*Process Physics is radically different from the current Non-Process Physics modelling of reality, and the experimental data analysed herein clearly refutes much of the foundations of Non-Process Physics. Non-Process Physics is essentially the reality paradigm associated with the names of Galileo, Newton, Einstein and many others. Its most distinctive feature is that it models time by geometry*

*Process Physics on the other hand is distinguished by modelling time as process.*”

“*The successes of Process Physics are already impacting on the foundations of physics with much support evident in existing experimental data. The new physics is also already motivating new experiments as would be expected of any new paradigm. It is becoming clear now how to design experiments that can and will distinguish the older Non-Process Physics from the new Process Physics. As well this new physics will have a major impact outside of the traditional boundaries of science, where it offers particular insights into our attempts to comprehend the phenomena of consciousness, and more broadly the nature of living systems. If these insights are also supported by new scientific endeavours then we can expect significant changes in our appreciation of our own human nature and its many manifestations in social and religious areas. Indeed Process Physics may unsnarl what Schopenhauer called the world-knot.*”

“*In general the work moves from the logic of the limitations of logic to the bootstrapping of a semantic information system. This bootstrapping system possesses none of the known phenomena of current physics, but in later sections we see the emergence of space and quantum matter in a unified manner. The characteristics of the emergent space are different from that of the modelling of space within the geometrical paradigm and in particular as well as absolute motion, that is motion with respect to space itself. A new and detailed theory of gravity arises.*”

“*very challenging notions about the nature of time and the deep connectivity and processing that is reality, a connectivity that was evident in some aspects of the quantum theory, but which was essentially outside of the non-process paradigm. This new physics is seen to be panexperientialist in character in which a primitive self-awareness or ‘consciousness’ is foundational to reality in the manner argued by Griffin and others [5], a consciousness that appears to be intrinsic to the semantic nature of the information system that is process physics. Such notions it seems may well be moving into the realm of experimental science and will result in a unification of human knowledge and experience that is beyond our prevailing comprehensions.*”

“*Process Physics [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19] is a radical information theoretic modelling of reality which arose from analysis of various extant limitations; from the limitations of formal information systems discovered by Gödel, Turing and Chaitin, from the limitations of the geometric modelling of time in the models constructed by Galileo, Newton and Einstein, and by the limitations of the quantum theory and its failure to account for the measurement process.*

In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic information, that is, information that is ‘internally’ meaningful, using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Such a system has no a priori objects or laws, and is evolved using a bootstrap system, so that it is the system itself that ‘internally’ creates patterns of relationships and their dominant modes of behaviour, and all (sub)systems are fractal in character, that is, relationships within relationships, and so on ad infinitum. In this way all emergent phenomena are unified, and it is this key feature that has resulted in an understanding and linking, for the first time, of various phenomena.

*Previously it was shown that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality.*”

“*The ongoing failure of physics to fully match all the aspects of the phenomena of time, apart from that of order, arises because physics has always used non-process models, as is the nature of formal or syntactical systems. Such systems do not require any notion of process - they are entirely structural and static. The new process physics overcomes these deficiencies by using a non-geometric process model for time, but process physics also argues for the importance of relational or semantic information in modelling reality. Semantic information refers to the notion that reality is a purely informational system where the information is internally meaningful. Hence the information is ‘content addressable’, rather than is the case in the usual syntactical information modelling where the information is represented by symbols. This symbolic or syntactical mode is only applicable to higher level phenomenological descriptions, and for that reason was discovered first.*”

“*Process physics is a semantic information system and is devoid of a priori objects and their laws and so it requires a subtle bootstrap mechanism to set it up. We use a stochastic neural network, Fig.5a, having the structure of real-number valued connections or relational information strengths B _{ij} (considered as forming a square matrix) between pairs of nodes or pseudo-objects i and j. In standard neural networks [20, 21] the network information resides in both link and node variables, with the semantic information residing in attractors of the iterative network. Such systems are also not pure in that there is an assumed underlying and manifest a priori structure.*”

here he refers to the "assumed underlying and manifest a priori structure" but he does not explicitly recognise it in his theory, he claims to overcome his reliance on it via a SOC bootstrap process...

“*self-organised criticality... SOC is the process where the emergent behaviour displays universal criticality in that the behaviour is independent of the particular start-up syntax; such a start-up syntax then has no ontological significance.*”

Regarding state in time being fundamental:

“*These iterations amount to the necessity to introduce a time-like process. Any system possessing a priori ‘objects’ can never be fundamental as the explanation of such objects must be outside the system. Hence in process physics the absence of intrinsic undefined objects is linked with the phenomena of time, involving as it does an ordering of ‘states’, the present moment effect, and the distinction between past and present.*

*Conversely in non-process physics the necessity for a priori objects is related to the use of the non-process geometrical model of time, with this modelling and its geometrical time metarule being an approximate emergent description from process-time. In this way process physics arrives at a new modelling of time, process time, which is much more complex than that introduced by Galileo, developed by Newton, and reaching its so called high point but deeply flawed Einstein spacetime geometrical model. Unlike these geometrical models process-time does model the Now effect.*”

“*The stochastic neural network so far has been realised with one particular scheme involving a stochastic non-linear matrix iteration ...*

*the network is innovative in the sense of generating semantic information, that is relational information which is internally meaningful. The emergent behaviour is believed to be completely generic in that it is not suggested that reality is a computation, rather it appears that reality has the form of a self-referential order-disorder information system. It is important to note that process physics is a non-reductionist modelling of reality; the basic iterator (2) is premised on the general assumption that reality is sufficiently complex that self-referencing occurs, and that this has limitations. Eqn.(2) is then a minimal bootstrapping implementation of these notions. At higher emergent levels this self-referencing manifests itself as interactions between emergent patterns, but other novel effects may also arise.*”

neural network iterative equation (2):

“B_{ij} → B_{ij} - α(B + B^{-1})_{ij} + w_{ij}, i,j = 1,2, ...,2N ; N → ∞”

There are "Langevin iterative equation"s that lie at the heart of quantum field theory that have “*the form of a stochastic neural network (see later), ... An interesting question arises: if we strip away the passive classical E4 background and the superscript indices , so that B?(x, y) --> B _{ij} and we retain only a simple form for S[B], then does this discretised Langevin equation, in (2), which now even more so resembles a stochastic neural network, continue to display quantum behaviour? In series of papers [6, 9, 10, 11] it has been found that indeed the SNN in (2) does exhibit quantum behaviour, by generating a quantum-foam dynamics for an emergent space, and with quantum -‘matter’ being topological-defects embedded in that quantum-foam in a unification of quantum space and matter. Indeed the remarkable discovery is that (2) generates a quantum gravity. Note, however, that now the iterations in (2) correspond to physical time, and we do not wait for equilibrium behaviour. Indeed the non-equilibrium behaviour manifests as a growing universe. The iterations correspond to a non-geometric modelling of time with an intrinsic arrow of time, as the iterations in (2) cannot be reversed. Hence the description of this new physics as Process Physics.*”

“*beneath quantum field theory there is evidence of a self-referential stochastic neural network, and its interpretation as a semantic information system.*”

“*We start the iterations of (2) at B ≈ 0, representing the absence of information, that is, of patterns. With the noise absent the iterator behaves in a deterministic and reversible manner giving a condensate-like system with a B matrix of the form in (11), but with the matrix M iteration independent and determined uniquely by the start-up B.*

However in the presence of the noise the iterator process is non-reversible and non-deterministic and, most importantly, non-trivial in its pattern generation. The iterator is manifestly nongeometric and non-quantum in its structure, and so does not assume any of the standard features of syntax based non-process physics models. Nevertheless, as we shall see, it generates geometric and quantum behaviour. The dominant mode is the formation of an apparently randomised background (in B) but, however, it also manifests a self-organising process which results in non-trivial patterns which have the form of a growing three dimensional fractal process-space displaying quantum-foam behaviour. These patterns compete with this random background and represent the formation of a ‘universe’.

The emergence of order in this system might appear to violate expectations regarding the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics; however because of the SRN the system behaves as an open system and the growth of order arises from the self-referencing term, B-1 in (2), selecting certain implicit order in the SRN. Hence the SRN acts as a source of negentropy.

*The term negentropy was introduced by E. Schrödinger in 1945 [33], and since then there has been ongoing discussion of its meaning. In process physics it manifests as the SRN. This growing three-dimensional fractal process-space is an example of a Prigogine far-from- equilibrium dissipative structure [34] driven by the SRN. From each iteration the noise term will additively introduce rare large value w _{ij} . These w_{ij} , which define sets of strongly linked nodes, will persist through more iterations than smaller valued w_{ij} and, as well, they become further linked by the iterator to form a three-dimensional process space with embedded topological defects. In this way the stochastic neural-network creates stable strange attractors and as well determines their interaction properties. This information is all internal to the system; it is the semantic information within the network.*”

in conclusion, after much discussion:

“*This model of time is part of an information-theoretic approach to comprehending reality. It was inspired by the logic of the limitations of the logic of formal syntactical information systems discovered by Gödel. The structural randomness, discovered by Chaitin, beyond the Gödel boundary in such systems was generalised to randomness in a time-like processing system by introducing the concept of self-referential noise. In this way we model the idea that there are limits to the information content within the processing information-theoretic system and in reality itself. Most significant is that this system entails the idea of semantic information, which is information that is generated and recognised within the system itself. This is in sharp contrast to the syntactical information-theoretic approach that has been the core concept in the traditional modelling of reality from its beginnings, though rarely acknowledged as such. As well evidence of a processing information-theoretic system was exposed as being at the base of the quantum field theory modelling of quantum matter, by means of the stochastic ‘quantisation’ formalism.*

Having set up a processing information-theoretic system in which all information is internally generated and recognised we have explored in considerable detail the nature of the emergent information and shown that, to the extent currently available, that the system generates phenomena that exhibit a remarkable likeness to those aspects of reality that physicists have so carefully revealed over past centuries.

The successes of process physics imply that we should give consideration to its foundational assumptions, and one is that reality is a non-local experiential information system. One way to interpret this is that reality has a primitive form of self-awareness. In increasingly more complex systems such as biological systems this self-awareness may manifest as consciousness...

*Process Physics is clearly a model of reality that implements many of the ideas that have been considered within Process Philosophy, particularly the work of Whitehead. The convergence of this physics and this philosophy represents an exciting development and a unification of not only various areas of physics but also of many other areas of human intellectual endeavours. This all points to an exciting future.*”